It wasn’t just Volkswagen. That’s the basic finding of 10 months of work by French investigators looking into European carmakers’ claims for the emissions from their vehicles’ diesel engines.
Vehicles by Fiat, Volvo, Renault, Nissan, and Ford were all found by researchers “to produce levels of toxic nitrogen oxides (NOx) well above European limits,” The Guardian reports. That finding applied to about one-third of the 86 diesel vehicles tested.
“The results echo similar findings in tests by the UK’s Department for Transport,” the paper notes.
The investigators stopped short, however, of asserting that any other manufacturers had concealed the excess emissions using evasive software—as Volkswagen has admitted doing. Because the French investigators had no access to the companies’ automotive computer software, they said, “the commission cannot make any definitive statement on the presence or absence of ‘cheating’ in the vehicles tested.”
Earlier this year, Germany announced plans to conduct random, surprise exhaust tests on all automakers’ vehicles.